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CBSE-Grade 12 Zoology Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Zoology, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 12 Zoology.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Human Reproduction
    2. Reproductive Health
    3. Evolution
    4. Human Health and Diseases
    5. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
    6. Biotechnology- Principles and Processes
    7. Biotechnology and Its Applications

1.A. The Male Reproductive System
1.B. The Female Reproductive System

1.C. Gametogenesis

1.D. Menstrual Cycle

1.E. Fertilization and Implantation

1.F. Pregnancy and Embryonic Development

1.G. Parturition and Lactation

2.A. Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies
2.B. Population Explosion and Birth Control
2.C. Medical Termination of Pregnancy

2.D. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

2.E. Infertility

3.A. Origin of Life
3.B. Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory
3.C. What are the Evidences for Evolution?
3.D. What is Adaptive Radiation?

3.E. Biological Evolution

3.F. Mechanism of Evolution

3.G. Hardy – Weinberg Principle

3.H. A Brief Account of Evolution

3.I. Origin and Evolution of Man

4.A. Common Diseases in Humans
4.B. Immunity
4.C. AIDS
4.D. Cancer

4.E. Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

5.A. Animal Husbandry
5.B. Plant Breeding
5.C. Single Cell Proteins
5.D. Tissue Culture

6.A. Principles of Biotechnology
6.B. Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

6.C. Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

7.A. Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
7.B. Biotechnological Applications in Medicine
7.C. Transgenic Animals
7.D. Ethical Issues

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CBSE-Grade 12 Botany Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Botany, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 12 Botany.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Reproduction in Organisms
    2. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
    3. Principles of Inheritance and Variation
    4. Molecular Basis of Inheritance
    5. Microbes in Human Welfare
    6. Organisms and Populations
    7. Ecosystem
    8. Biodiversity and Conservation
    9. Environmental Issues

1.A. Asexual Reproduction
1.B. Sexual Reproduction

2.A. Flower – A Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms
2.B. Pre-fertilisation : Structures and Events
2.C. Double Fertilisation

2.D. Post-fertilisation: Structures and Events

2.E. Apomixis and Polyembryony

3.A. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
3.B. Inheritance of One Gene
3.C. Inheritance of Two Genes
3.D. Sex Determination

3.E. Mutation

3.F. Genetic Disorders

4.A. The DNA
4.B. The Search for Genetic Material
4.C. RNA World
4.D. Replication

4.E. Transcription

4.F. Genetic Code

4.G. Translation

4.H. Regulation of Gene Expression

4.I. Human Genome Project

4.J. DNA Fingerprinting

5.A. Microbes in Household Products
5.B. Microbes in Industrial Products
5.C. Microbes in Sewage Treatment
5.D. Microbes in Production of Bio gas

5.E. Microbes as Bio control Agents

5.F. Microbes as Biofertilisers

6.A. Organism and Its Environment
6.B. Populations

7.A. Ecosystem–Structure and Function
7.B. Productivity
7.C. Decomposition
7.D. Energy Flow

7.E. Ecological Pyramids

7.F. Ecological Succession

7.G. Nutrient Cycling

7.H. Ecosystem Services

8.A. Biodiversity
8.B. Biodiversity Conservation

9.A. Air Pollution and Its Control
9.B. Water Pollution and Its Control
9.C. Solid Wastes
9.D. Agro-chemicals and their Effects

9.E. Radioactive Wastes

9.F. Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

9.G. Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere

9.H. Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance

9.I. Deforestation

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CBSE-Grade 11 Zoology Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Zoology, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 11 Zoology.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Animal Kingdom
    2. Structural Organisation in Animals
    3. Biomolecules
    4. Digestion and Absorption
    5. Breathing and Respiration
    6. Body Fluids and Circulation
    7. Excretory Products and their Elimination
    8. Locomotion and Movement
    9. Neural Control and Coordination
    10. Chemical Coordination and Regulation

1.A. Basis of Classification
1.B. Classification of Animals

2.A. Animal Tissues
2.B. Organ and Organ System
2.C. Earthworm

2.D. Cockroach

2.E. Frogs

3.A. How to Analyse Chemical Composition?
3.B. Primary and Secondary Metabolites
3.C. Biomacromolecules
3.D. Proteins

3.E. Polysaccharides

3.F. Nucleic Acids

3.G. Structure of Proteins

3.H. Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer

3.I. Dynamic State of Body Constituents – Concept of Metabolism

3.J. Metabolic Basis for Living

3.K. The Living State

3.L. Enzymes

4.A. Digestive System
4.B. Digestion of Food
4.C. Absorption of Digested Products
4.D. Disorders of Digestive System

5.A. Respiratory Organs
5.B. Mechanism of Breathing
5.C. Exchange of Gases
5.D. Transport of Gases

5.E. Regulation of Respiration

5.F. Disorders of Respiratory System

6.A. Blood
6.B. Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
6.C. Circulatory Pathways
6.D. Double Circulation

6.E. Regulation of Cardiac Activity

6.F. Disorders of Circulatory System

7.A. Human Excretory System
7.B. Urine Formation
7.C. Function of the Tubules
7.D. Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate

7.E. Regulation of Kidney Function

7.F. Micturition

7.G. Role of other Organs in Excretion

7.H. Disorders of the Excretory System

8.A. Types of Movement
8.B. Muscle
8.C. Skeletal System
8.D. Joints

8.E. Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System

9.A. Neural System
9.B. Human Neural System
9.C. Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System
9.D. Central Neural System

9.E. Reflex Action and Reflex Arc

9.F. Sensory Reception and Processing

10.A. Endocrine Glands and Hormones
10.B. Human Endocrine System
10.C. Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
10.D. Mechanism of Hormone Action

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CBSE-Grade 11 Botany Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Botany, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 11 Botany.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. The Living World
    2. Biological Classification
    3. Plant Kingdom
    4. Morphology Of Flowering Plants
    5. Anatomy of Flowering Plants
    6. Cell The Unit of Life
    7. Cell Cycle and Cell Division
    8. Transport in Plants
    9. Mineral Nutrition
    10. Photosynthesis in Plants
    11. Respiration in Plants
    12. Plant Growth and Development

1.A. What is ‘Living’?
1.B. Diversity in the Living World
1.C. Taxonomic Categories

1.D. Taxonomical Aids

2.A. Kingdom Monera
2.B. Kingdom Protista
2.C. Kingdom Fungi

2.D. Kingdom Plantae

2.E. Kingdom Animalia

2.F. Viruses, Viroids and Lichens

3.A. Algae
3.B. Bryophytes
3.C. Pteridophytes
3.D. Gymnosperms

3.E. Angiosperms

3.F. Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations

4.A. The Root
4.B. The Stem
4.C. The Leaf
4.D. The Inflorescence

4.E. The Flower

4.F. The Fruit

4.G. The Seed

4.H. Semi-technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant

4.I. Description of Some Important Families

5.A. The Tissues
5.B. The Tissue System
5.C. Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants
5.D. Secondary Growth

6.A. What is a Cell?
6.B. Cell Theory
6.C. An Overview of Cell
6.D. Prokaryotic Cells

6.E. Eukaryotic Cells

7.A. Cell Cycle
7.B. M Phase
7.C. Significance of Mitosis
7.D. Meiosis

7.E. Significance of Meiosis

8.A. Means of Transport
8.B. Plant-Water Relations
8.C. Long Distance Transport of Water
8.D. Transpiration

8.E. Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients

8.F. Phloem Transport: Flow from Source to Sink

9.A. Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements of Plants
9.B. Essential Mineral Elements
9.C. Mechanism of Absorption of Elements
9.D. Translocation of Solutes

9.E. Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements

9.F. Metabolism of Nitrogen

10.A. What do we Know?
10.B. Early Experiments
10.C. Where does Photosynthesis take place?
10.D. How many Pigments are involved in Photosynthesis?

10.E. What is Light Reaction?

10.F. The Electron Transport

10.G. Where are the ATP and NADPH Used?

10.H. The C4 Pathway

10.I. Photorespiration

10.J. Factors affecting Photosynthesis

11.A. Do Plants Breathe?
11.B. Glycolysis
11.C. Fermentation
11.D. Aerobic Respiration

11.E. The Respiratory Balance Sheet

11.F. Amphibolic Pathway

11.G. Respiratory Quotient

12.A. Growth
12.B. Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation
12.C. Development
12.D. Plant Growth Regulators

12.E. Photoperiodism

12.F. Vernalisation

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CBSE-Grade 12 POM Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Business Studies, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 12 POM- Principles & Functions of Management.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Nature and Significance of Management
    2. Principles of Management
    3. Business Environment
    4. Planning
    5. Organizing
    6. Define staffing
    7. Directing
    8. Controlling

1.A. Characteristics of management and its importance
1.B. Nature of management as an art, science and profession
1.C. Functions of management

2.A. Significance of principles of management
2.B. Taylor’s principles and techniques of Management
2.C. Fayol’s principles of management
3.A. Meaning of business environment
3.B. Importance of business environment
3.C. Elements of business environment
3.D. Economic environment in India and the impact of Government policies

4.A. Meaning of planning
4.B. Features and importance of planning
4.C. Limitations of planning
4.D. Different types of plans

5.A. Concept of Organising
5.B. Process of Organising
5.C. Importance of Organising
5.D. Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages of Functional Organisation

5.E. Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages of Divisional Organisation

5.F. Meaning, Advantages and Disadvantages of Formal and Informal Organisation

5.G. Distinguish between Formal and Informal Organisation

5.H. Concept of Delegation and Decentralisation

5.I. Importance of Delegation and Decentralisation

5.J. Distinguish between Delegation and Decentralisation

6.A. Define Staffing
6.B. Relationship with Human Resource Management
6.C. Need and importance of Staffing
6.D. Steps in the Staffing Process

6.E. Recruitment and Selection

6.F. Important Sources of Recruitment

5.G. Steps in the Selection Process

6.H. Need of Training and Development

6.I. Jobs Methods of Training

7.A. Directing and importance in Business Organisations
7.B. Principles Guiding Directing Process
7.C. Supervision and its importance
7.D. Motivation and importance in Business Management

7.E. Maslow’s Theory and Application to Motivation of Employees

7.F. Financial and Nonfinancial Incentives

7.G. Leadership and Importance in Management

7.H. Qualities of a Good Leader

7.I. Formal and Informal Communications in the Organisations

7.J. Communications and Measures in the Organisations

8.A. Meaning of Controlling
8.B. Importance of Controlling
8.C. Steps in the Process of Controlling
8.D. Techniques of Controlling

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CBSE-Grade 12 BFM Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Business Studies, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 12 BFM- Business Financial Management.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Financial Management
    2. Financial Markets
    3. Marketing
    4. Consumer Protection

1.A. Meaning of Business Finance
1.B. Describe Financial Management
1.C. Financial Management in our Enterprise
1.D. Meaning of Capital Structure

1.E. Choice of an Appropriate Capital Structure

1.F. Meaning of Fixed Capital and Working Capital

1.G. Affecting the Requirement of Fixed And Working Capital

2.A. Meaning of Financial Market
2.B. Meaning of Money Market and Instruments
2.C. Nature and types of Capital Market

2.D. Between Money Market and Capital Market

2.E. Meaning and functions of Stock Exchange

2.F. Functioning of NSEI and OTCEI

2.G. Role of SEBI in investor protection

3.A. Meaning of ‘Marketing’
3.B. Between ‘ M A R K E T I N G ’ and ‘Selling’
3.C. List out Important Functions of Marketing
3.D. Role of Marketing in the Development Economy in a Firm

3.E. Elements of Marketing-mix

3.F. Classify Products into Different Categories

3.G. Factors Affecting Price of a Product

3.H. Types of Channels of Distribution

3.I. Tools of Promotion

4.A. Importance of consumer protection
4.B. legal framework for consumer protection in India
4.C. Describe Consumer Rights in India
4.D. List out Consumer Responsibilities
4.E. Ways and Means of Consumer Protection

4.F. Role of Consumer Organisations and NGO’s

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CBSE-Grade 11 BFM Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Business Studies, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 11 BFM- Business Financial Management.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Business Services
    2. Emerging Modes of Business
    3. Formation of a Company
    4. Sources of Business Finance
    5. Internal Trade
    6. International Business

1.A. Characteristics Of Services
1.B. Distinguish Services From Goods
1.C. Types Of Business Services
1.D. Concept Of E-banking

1.E. Types Of Insurance Policies

1.F. Types Of Warehouses


2.A. Meaning Of E-business
2.B. Process Of Online Buying And Selling in E-business
2.C. Distinguish E-business From Traditional Business

2.D. Benefits Of Switching Over To Electronic Mode

2.E. Requirements For A Firm’s Into E-business

2.F. Major Security Concerns Of Electronic Mode

2.G. Need For Business Process Outsourcing


3.A. Stages In The Formation Of A Company
3.B. Steps Involved In Each Stage Of Company Formation
3.C. Required Documents To The Registrar Of Companies
3.D. Certificate Of Incorporation And Commence Business


4.A. Meaning, Nature And Importance Of Business Finance
4.B. Sources Of Business Finance
4.C. Merits And Limitations Sources Of Finance
4.D. The International Sources Of Finance
4.E. Factors Source Of Finance


5.A. Types Of Internal Trade
5.B. Services Of Wholesalers To Manufactures And Retailers
5.C. Small Scale And Large Scale Retailers
5.D. Role Of Chambers Of Commerce And Industry

5.E. Officiate Implementation Of Gst


6.A. Meaning Of International Business
6.B. Distinguish Between Internal And International Business
6.C. Scope Of International Business
6.D. Benefits Of International Business

6.E. Documents Required For Import And Export Transactions

6.F. Incentives And Schemes Available For International Firms

6.G. Promotion Of International Business

6.H. Promotion Of International Trade And Development

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CBSE-Grade 12 Macro Economics Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Economics, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 12 Macro Economics.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Introduction
    2. National Income Accounting
    3. Money And Banking
    4. Determination Of Income And Employment
    5. Government Budget And The Maeconomy
    6. Open Maeconomy Macromaeconomics

1.A. Emergence Of Macroeconomics
1.B. Context Of The Present Book Of Macroeconomics

2.A. Some Basic Concepts Of Macroeconomics
2.B. Circular Flow Of Income And Methods Of Calculating National Income
2.C. Some Macroeconomic Identities
2.D. Nominal And Real Gdp

2.E. Gdp And Welfare

3.A. Functions Of Money
3.B. Demand For Money And Supply Of Money
3.C. Money Creation By Banking System
3.D. Policy Tools To Control Money Supply

4.A. Aggregate Demand And Its Components
4.B. Determination Of Income In Two-sector Model
4.C. Determination Of Equilibrium Income In The Short Run
4.D. Some More Concepts

5.A. Government Budget – Meaning And Its Components
5.B. Balanced, Surplus And Deficit Budget

6.A. The Balance Of Payments
6.B. The Foreign Exchange Market

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CBSE-Grade 12 Micro Economics Syllabus


CBSE syllabus always maintains a standard, If a student has trouble understanding a topic related to Economics, the student can go through questions and answers related to each topic covered in Class 12 Micro Economics.

Some of the topics Covered include :


TOPICS

    1. Introduction
    2. Theory Of Consumer Behaviour
    3. Production And Costs
    4. The Theory Of The Firm Under Perfect Competition
    5. Market Equilibrium
    6. Non-competitive Markets

1.A. A Simple Economy
1.B. Central Problems Of An Economy
1.C. Organisation Of Economic Activities
1.D. Positive And Normative Economics

1.E. Microeconomics And Macroeconomics

1.F. Plan Of The Book

2.A. Utility
2.B. The Consumer’s Budget
2.C. Optimal Choice Of The Consumer
2.D. Demand

2.E. Market Demand

2.F. Elasticity Of Demand

3.A. Production Function
3.B. The Short Run And The Long Run
3.C. Total Product, Average Product And Marginal Product
3.D. The Law Of Diminishing Marginal Product And The Law Of Variable Proportions

3.E. Shapes Of Total Product, Marginal Product And Average Product Curves

3.F. Returns To Scal

3.G. Costs

4.A. Perfect Competition: Defining Features
4.B. Revenue
4.C.Profit Maximisation
4.D. Supply Curve Of A Firm

4.E. Determinants Of A Firm’s Supply Curve

4.F. Market Supply Curve

4.G. Price Elasticity Of Supply

5.A. Equilibrium, Excess Demand, Excess Supply
5.B. Applications

6.A. Simple Monopoly In The Commodity Market
6.B. Other Non-perfectly Competitive Markets