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AIIMS EXAM- Capsule Presentation

AIIMS 2018_colscol


The All India Institute of Medical Sciences MBBS Entrance Examination is a national level undergraduate medical entrance exam conducted by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, for admissions to MBBS programmes offered in AIIMS,IIMS New Delhi will offer 107 seats, while the other AIIMS institutions located in Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Jodhpur, Patna, Raipur and Rishikesh will each offer 100 seats. The two new AIIMS in Guntur and Nagpur will offer 50 seats each for this year. The entrance exam of AIIMS MBBS 2018 will be held in online mode, as a Computer Based Test (CBT) in two slots – morning and evening – over two consecutive days. On both days, each slot of the exam will take place for a duration of 3 hours and 30 minutes and the AIIMS MBBS 2018 candidates will have to appear as per the slot allotted to them. Along with NEET and JIPMER, AIIMS MBBS is one among India’s three medical entrance exams at the undergraduate level. Continue reading AIIMS EXAM- Capsule Presentation

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NEET EXAM – Capsule Presentation



The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) is a national level single entrance test conducted for admissions to approximately 90,000 MBBS and BDS seats across the country. Analysis your preparation for Big Day 6th May by enrolling free registration and get online mock sample test with free tips and guidance with the experts faculty. Continue reading NEET EXAM – Capsule Presentation

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CBSE- Grade 10 Chemistry Syllabus


We provides you complete study material along with CBSE class 10 Chemistry Syllabus along with sample papers, covering all the updated units and chapters in a structured manner. Students searching for new topics and chapters can find everything in the official website and download the file in any format. Knowing the syllabus especially for class 10 board exam is equally important as exam preparation, since you get to know which are the units and chapters carry maximum marks and require to spend more time. Now download chemistry syllabus and know the current list of units and chapters along with the topics eliminated if any from the previous syllabus.

The CBSE board is known for its standard principles in framing the syllabus and when it comes to class 10 board exams, special care is taken for the student’s performance and future. The syllabus is designed based on flexibility so that it can be adapted by any kind of student based on different potentials and capabilities.

The list of units in class 10 Chemistry is mentioned below.


  1. Chemical Reactions and Equations
  2. Acid, Bases and Salts
  3. Metal and Non-metals
  4. Carbon and its Compounds
  5. Periodic Classification of Elements
  6. Our Environment

1.A. Chemical equation
1.B. Balancing chemical equation
1.C. Types of chemical reactions combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement
1.D. Precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction

2.A. Acid, Bases and Salts
2.B. What do all acids and bases have in common
2.C. How strong are acids or base solution. Importance of pH in everyday life
2.D. Salts
2.E. Preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder
2.F. Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris
3.A. Physical properties & Chemical properties of metal
3.B. Reactivity series
3.C. How do metals and non metals react
3.D. Occurrence of metals
3.E. Corrosion and its prevention
4.A. Bonding in carbon- covalent bonding
4.B. Versatile nature of carbon
4.C. Saturated and unsaturated compounds, chain, branches and rings
4.D. Homologous series
4.E. Nomenclature of carbon compounds
4.F. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion)
4.G. Chemical properties of carbon compounds ( oxidation, addition and substitution reaction)
4.H. Properties and reactions of Ethanol
4.I. Properties and reactions of Ethanoic acids
4.J. Soaps and Detergents
5.A. Early attempts at the classification of elements
5.B. Mendeleev’s periodic table
5.C. Modern periodic table
5.D. Trends in modern periodic table
5.E. Periodic properties of elements
5.F. Electro-negativity of element
6.A. What happens when when we add waste to our surrounding
6.B. Ecosystem: what are its components
6.C. How do our activities affect environment
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CBSE- Grade 10 Physics Syllabus


The search of class 10 students to find class 10 Physics syllabus has come to an end,this learning brings comprehensive material for cbse students to help improve their performances in class 10 board exams. Students must be updated with the latest cbse syllabus and compare with the previous years syllabus to know which are the chapters and units that are added and whether any concepts are eliminated.


  1. Light reflection and refraction
  2. Human eye and colorful world
  3. Electricity
  4. Magnetic effect of electric current
  5. Sources of energy
  6. Management of Natural Resources

1.A. Reflection of light
1.B. Spherical mirrors: Formation of image
1.C. Uses of spherical mirrors
1.D. Mirror formula and magnification
1.E. Refraction of light
1.F. Refraction by spherical lenses
1.G. Lens formula and magnification – Power of lens

2.A. The human eye
2.B. Power of accommodation
2.C. Why do we have two eyes
2.D. Defects of vision and its correction: myopia
2.E. Defects of vision and its correction: Hypermetropia
2.F. Defects of vision and its correction: Presbyopia
2.G. Defects of vision and its correction: Astigmatism
2.H. Refraction of light through prism
2.I. Dispersion of white light through glass prism
2.J. Atmospheric refraction
2.H. Scattering of light
3.A. Electric current and circuits
3.C. Circuit diagram
3.D. Ohm’s law
3.E. Factors on which the resistance of conductor depends
3.F. Resistance of a system of resistors
3.G. Heating effect of electric current
3.H. Electric power

4.A. Magnetic field and field lines
4.B. Magnetic field due to current carrying conductors
4.C. Force on current carrying conductor in electric field
4.D. Electric motor
4.E. Electromagnetic induction
4.F. Domestic electric circuits
5.A. What is a good source of energy
5.B. Conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels
5.C. Conventional sources of energy: Hydro power plant
5.D. Alternate or non- conventional sources of energy: Biomass bio-gas
5.E. Non Conventional Sources of Energy -Ocean Thermal Energy
5.F. Non Conventional Sources of Energy -Solar Energy – Photo voltaic Cell
5.G. Non Conventional Sources of Energy – Tidal Energy
5.H. Non Conventional Sources of Energy – Geothermal Energy
5.I. Non Conventional Sources of Energy – Ocean Thermal Energy
5.J. Environmental consequences
5.K. How long will an energy source last us
6.A. Save the Environment from Environmental Pollution – Reuse
6.B. Save the Environment from Environmental Pollution – Reduce
6.C. Save the Environment from Environmental Pollution – Recycle
6.D. Why do we need to manage our natural resources
6.E. Forest and wildlife
6.F. Sustainable management
6.G. Water for all : dam
6.H. Water harvesting
6.I. Coal and petroleum
6.J. An overview of natural resource management
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CBSE- Grade 12 Biology Syllabus


Students having trouble with tough biology chapters who wish to score better in their biology exams can refer to our free NCERT solutions which give students all that is necessary to prepare for their examinations and solve various math related problems. All that students need to do is go through these CBSE Class 12 biology syllabus and NCERT books and solve the questions and exercises given in each chapter. Students can be assured of positive results. NCERT text books can be very helpful for students in achieving maximum marks in their examinations.

Some of the topics covered are:


  1. Reproduction in Organism</strong
  2. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  3. Human Reproduction
  4. Reproductive Health
  5. Principle of Inheritence and Variation
  6. Molecular Basis of Inheritence
  7. Evolution
  8. Human Health and Disease
  9. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  10. Microbes in Human Welfare
  11. Biotechnology: Principle and Processes
  12. Biotechnology and Its Application
  13. Organisms and Populations
  14. Ecosystem
  15. Biodiversity and Conservation
  16. Environmental Issues

1.A. Asexual reproduction
1.B. Sexual reproduction

2.A. Flower- a fascinating organ of angiosperm
2.B. Pre-fertilisaiton- structures and events: stamen, microsporangium and pollen grain
2.C. The pistil, megasporangium (ovule) and embryo sac
2.D. Pollination
2.E. Agents of pollination
2.F. Outbreedings devices and pollen-Pistil interaction
2.G. Artificial hybridisation
2.H. Double fertilization
2.I. Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo
2.J. Seed
2.K. Apomixis and polyembryony
3.A. The male reproductive system
3.B. The female reproductive system
3.C. Gametogenesis
3.D. Menstrual cycle
3.E. Fertilisation and implantation
3.F. Pregnancy and embryogenic development, parturition and lactation
4.A. Reproductive health- problems and strategies
4.B. Population explosion and birth control
4.C. Medical treatment of pregnancy
4.D. Sexually transmitted diseases
4.E. Infertility
5.A. Mendel’s law of inheritance
5.B. Inheritance of one gene
5.C. Law of dominance and segregation
5.D. Incomplete dominance
5.E. Co-dominance
5.F. Inheritance of two genes
5.G. Law of independent assortment
5.H. Chromosomal theory of inheritance
5.I. Linkage and recombination
5.J. Sex determination in humans
5.K. Mutation
5.L. Genetic disorder: pedigree analysis
5.M. Mendelian disorder
5.N. Chromosomal disorders
6.A. The DNA: structure of polynucleotide chain
6.B. Packaging of DNA helix
6.C. The search for genetic material: transforming principle
6.D. The genetic material is DNA
6.E. Properties of genetic material (DNA vs RNA)
6.F. RNA world
6.G. Replication
6.H. The machinery and enzymes
6.I. Transcription
6.J. Genetic code
6.K. Mutations and genetic code, tRNA
6.L. Translation
6.M. Regulation of gene operation- Lac Operon
6.N. Human genome project
6.O. DNA fingerprinting
7.A. Origin of life
7.B. Evolution of life form- a theory
7.C. What are the evidences for evolution
7.D. What is adaptive radiation
7.E. Biological evolution
7.F. Mechanism of evolution, Hardy Weinberg principle
7.G. A brief account of evolution
7.H. Origin and evolution of man
8.A. Common diseases in human
8.B. Immunity: innate immunity
8.C. Acquired immunity
8.D. Active and passive immunity
8.E. Vaccination and immunisation
8.F. Allergies and autoimmunity
8.G. Immunity system in the body
8.I. Cancer
8.J. Drugs and alcohol abuse
8.K. Prevention and control
9.A. Animal husbandy
9.B. Plant breeding
9.C. Biofortification
9.D. Single cell protein
9.E. Tissue culture
10.A. Microbes in household product and industrial products
10.B. Microbes in sewage treatment
10.C. Microbes in the production of biogas
10.D. MMicrobes in biocontrol agents
10.E. Microbes as biofertilisers
11.A. Principle of biotechnology
11.B. Tools of recombinant DNA technology
11.C. Cloning vectors
11.D. Process of recombinant DNA technology
11.E. Obtaining the foreign gene product and downstream processing
12.A. Biotechnology application in agriculture
12.B. Biotechnology application in medicine
12.C. Transgenic animals

13.A. Organism and its environment: major abiotic factors
13.B. Responses to abiotic factors
13.C. Adaptation
13.D. Population attributes
13.E. Population growth
13.F. Life history variation and population interaction
14.A. Ecosystem- structure and function
14.B. Decomposition
14.C. Energy flow
14.D. Ecological pyramids
14.E. Ecological successions
14.F. Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorus)
14.G. Ecosystem services
14.A. Biodiversity
14.B. Patterns of biodiversity
14.C. The importance of species diversity to the ecosystem, loss of biodiversity
14.D. Biodiversity conservation
14.A. Air pollution and its control
14.B. Water pollution and its control
14.C. Solid wastes
14.D. Agro-chemical and their effects
14.E. Radioactive wastes
14.F. Greenhouse effect and global warming
14.G. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere
14.H. Degradation by improper resource utilisation and maintenance
14.I. Deforestation
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CBSE- Grade 12 Maths Syllabus

Students having trouble with tough math problems who wish to score better in their mathematics examinations can refer to our free Class 12 Maths Syllabus and NCERT solutions which give students all that is necessary to prepare for their examinations and solve various math related problems. All that students need to do is go through these CBSE Class 12 Maths Syllabus and NCERT books and solve the questions and exercises given in each chapter. Students can be assured of positive results. NCERT text books can be very helpful for students in achieving maximum marks in their examinations.

Some of the topics Covered include :


  1. Relations and Functions
  2. Inverse Trignometric Functions
  3. Matrices
  4. Determinants
  5. Continuity or Differentiability
  6. Application of Derrivatives
  7. Integrals
  8. Application of Integrals
  9. Differential Equations
  10. Vector Algebra
  11. Three Dimensional Geometry
  12. Linear Programming
  13. Probability

1.A. Types of relation
1.B. Types of function
1.C. Composition of function and invertible function
1.D. Binary operation

2.A. Definition
2.B. Range
2.C. Domain
2.D. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions
2.E. Properties of inverse trignometric functions
3.A. Matrix
3.B. Order of matrix
3.C. types of matrices
3.D. Properties of transpose of matrix
3.E. Operations on matrices: addition
3.F. Multiplication of matrices
3.G. Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices
3.H. Elementary operation of matrix
3.I. Invertible matrix
3.J. Inverse of matrix by elimentary operation

4.A. Determinant
4.B. Properties of determinant
4.C. Area of a triangle
4.D. Minor and cofactors
4.E. Adjoint nand inverse of a matrix
4.F. Application of matrices and determinants: solution of linear equation using inverse of a matrix
5.A. Continuity
5.B. Algebra of continuous function
5.C. Differentiability
5.D. Derrivative of composite function (chain rule)
5.E. Derrivative of impicit function
5.F. Derrivative of inverse trignometric function
5.G. Exponential logarithmic function
5.H. Logarithmic differentiation
5.I. Derrivatives of function in parametric form
5.J. Second order derrivative
5.K. Mean value theorem

6.A. Rate of change of quantities
6.B. Increasing and decreasing functions
6.C. Tangents and normals
6.D. Approximation
6.E. Maxima and minima: Introduction
6.F. Maxima and minima: First derrivative method
6.G. Maxima and minima: second derrivative method
6.H. Maximum and minimum value of function in closed interval
7.A. Integration as an inverse process of differentiation
7.B. Geometric interpretation of indefinite integral
7.C. Some properties of indefinite integrals
7.D. Comparison between differentiation and integration
7.E. Methods of integration
7.F. Integration using trignometric identities
7.G. Integrals of some particular function
7.H. Integration by partial fraction
7.I. Integration by parts
7.J. Integrals of some more types
7.K. Definite integration: definite integral as a limit of a sum
7.L. Fundamental theorem of calculus
7.M. Evaluating definite integral by substitution
7.N. Some properties of definite integrals
8.A. Area under simple curves
8.B. Area of a region bounded by curve and a line
8.C. Area between two curves
9.A. Basic concept
9.B. Degree of a differential equation
9.C. General and particular solutions of differential equation
9.D. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given
9.E. Methods of solving first order, first degree differential equation
9.D. Homogeneous differential equation
9.E. Linear differential equation
10.A. Some basic concepts
10.B. Types of vectors
10.C. Addition of vectors
10.D. Multiplication of vector by a scalar: components of vector
10.E. Vector joing two points
10.F. Section formula
10.G. Product of two vectors: scalar product and application
10.H. Scalar triple product
10.I. Cross product of two vectors
11.A. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line
11.B. Equation of a line in space
11.C. Angle between two lines
11.D. Shortest distance between two lines
11.E. Plane: equation of plane in normal form
11.F. “Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point”
11.G. Equation of plane passing through three non collinear points
11.H. “Intercept form of equation of line and a plane passing throug through
the intersection of two given plane”

11.I. Coplanarity of two lines
11.J. Angle between two planes
11.K. Distance of a point from a plane
11.L. Angle between a line and a plane
12.A. Linear programming problem and its mathematical formulation
12.B. Graphical method of solving linear programming problem
12.C. Different types of linear programming problem
13.A. Conditional probability
13.B. multiplication theorem on probability
13.C. independent events
13.D. total probability
13.E. Baye’s theorem
13.F. Random variable and its probability distribution
13.G. mean and variance of random variable
13.H. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution
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CBSE- Grade 12 Chemistry Syllabus

Your latest CBSE syllabus for class 12 Chemistry along with study material and question paper pattern. It is important to know which are the units and chapters included in class 12 chemistry syllabus along with NCERT solutions so that you get to know the new units added which were not the part of syllabus last year and whether any of the previous chapters and topics are deleted.

CBSE is always concerned about the results and performances of students in their academics and therefore imparts modifications in class 12 chemistry syllabus after proper studies and discussions with the board members. Every change points towards the overall development and advancement of the students by keeping the importance of primary education and role of future generations in the economic growth.

The list of units in class 12 Chemistry is mentioned below.


  1. Solid State
  2. Solutions
  3. Electrochemistry
  4. Chemical Kinetics
  5. Surface Chemistry
  6. General Principle and Process of Isolation of Elements
  7. The p-Block Elements
  8. The d- and f- Block Elements
  9. Coordination Compounds
  10. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  11. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  12. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxyllic Acids
  13. Amines
  14. Biomolecules
  15. Polymers
  16. Chemistry in Everyday Life

1.A. General characteristics of solid state, Amorphous and crystalline solids
1.B. Classification of crystalline solids: molecular and ionic solids
1.C. Classification of crystalline solids: covalent and metallic solids
1.D. Crystal lattices and unit cell
1.E. Number of atoms in a unit cell
1.F. Close packed structure in one and two dimension
1.G. Close packing in three dimensions
1.H. Formula of a compounds and number of voids filled
1.I. Packing efficiency
1.J. Calculation involving unit cell dimension: density of unit cell
1.K. Imperfections in solids
1.L. Electrical properties
1.M. Band theory of metals
1.N. Magnetic properties

2.A. Types of solutions
2.B. Expressing concentration of solutions
2.C. Solubility: solubility of solid in liquid
2.D. Solubility of gas in a liquid
2.E. Raoult’s law
2.F. Colligative properties and determination of molar mass: relative lowering of
vapour pressure

2.G. Elevation of boiling point
2.H. Depression of freezing point
2.I. Osmosis and osmotic pressure
2.J. Reverse osmosis and water purification
2.H. Abnormal molar mass: Van’t Hoff factor
3.A. Electrochemical cells
3.B. Galvanic cells
3.C. Measurement of electrode potential
3.D. Nernst equation > 100
3.E. equilibrium constant from Nernst equation
3.F. Electrochemical cell and Gibbs free energy of reaction
3.G. Conductance of electrolytic cell
3.H. Measurement of conductivity of ionic solutions
3.I. Variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration
3.J. Kohlrausch law
3.K. Electrolytic cell and electrolysis
3.L. Products of electrolysis
3.M. Batteries
3.N. Fuel cell
3.O. Corrosion
4.A. Rate of chemical reaction
4.B. Factors influencing rate of reaction
4.C. Rate expression and rate constant
4.D. Order and molecularity of reaction
4.E. Integrated rate equations
4.F. Half life of a reaction
4.G. Pseudo first order reaction
4.H. Temperature dependence of rate of reaction
4.I. Arrhenious equation
4.J. Effect of catalyst
4.K. Collision theory of chemical reactions
5.A. Adsorption: distinction between adsorption and absorption and mechanism
5.B. Types of adsorption
5.C. Adsorption isotherms and application of adsorption
5.D. Catalysis
5.E. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst
5.F. Adsorption theory of heterogeneous catalyst
5.G. Enzyme catalysis
5.H. Colloids and classification of colloids
5.I. “Classification based on types of particles of dispersed phase, multimolecular,
macromolecular and associated colloids”

5.J. Preparation of colloids
5.K. purification of colloidal solution
5.L. Properties of colloidal solution
5.M. Coagulation
5.N. Emulsions
5.o. Colloids around us
6.A. Occurrence of metals
6.B. Concentration of ores
6.C. Extraction of crude metals from concentrated ore
6.D. Thermodynamics principle of metallurgy
6.E. Application of thermodynamics principle: extraction of iron from iron oxide
6.F. Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide
6.G. Extraction of zinc from zinc oxide
6.H. Electrochemical principle of metallurgy
6.I. Oxidation and reduction
6.J. “Refining: distillation, liquation, electrolysis, zone refining, Vapour phase
refining and chromatographic methods”

6.K. Uses of copper, iron and zinc
7.A. Occurrence
7.B. Group 15 elements: general characteristics
7.C. Physical and chemical properties of group 15 elements
7.D. Dinitrogen
7.E. Ammonia and nitric acid
7.F. Oxides of nitrogen
7.G. Phosphorous allotropic form
7.H. Phosphine
7.I. Phosphorus halide
7.J. oxoacids of phosphorus
7.K. Group 16 elements: occurence
7.L. Group 16 elements: general characteristics
7.M. Physical and chemical properties of group 16 elements
7.N. Dioxygen
7.O. Simple oxides
7.P. Ozone
7.Q. sulphur allotropic form
7.R. Sulphur dioxide
7.S. Oxoacids of sulphur
7.T. Sulphuric acid
7.U. Group 17 elements: occurrence
7.V. Group 17 elements: general characteristics
7.W. Physical and chemical properties of group 17 elements
7.X. Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride
7.Y. Oxoacids of halogens
7.Z. Interhalogen compounds
7.Z1. Group 18 elements: general characteristics
7.Z2. Group 18 elements: occurence
7.Z3. Physical and chemical properties of group 18 elements
7.Z4. Uses of noble gases
8.A. Electronic configuration
8.B. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals
8.C. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character
8.D. ionization enthalpy
8.E. oxidation states
8.F. colour
8.G. catalytic property
8.H. magnetic properties
8.I. interstitial compounds
8.J. alloy formation
8.K. preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4
8.L. Electronic configuration: lanthanide
8.M. oxidation states
8.N. chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction
8.O. Electronic configuration, ionic size , oxidation state: actinides
8.P. oxidation states and comparison with lanthanides
8.Q. Some application of d- and f- block elements
9.A. Werner’s theory of coordination compound
9.B. Definition of some important terms pertaining to coordination compounds
9.C. Nomenclature of coordination compounds
9.D. Isomerism in coordination compounds
9.E. Bonding ion coordination compounds: valence bond theory
9.F. Magnetic properties of coordination compounds
9.G. Crystal field theory
9.H. Colour in coordination compounds
9.I. Limitations to crystal field theory
9.J. Bonding in metal carbonyls and stability of coordination compounds
9.K. Importance and application of coordination compounds
10.A. Classification
10.B. Nomenclature
10.C. Nature of c-x bond
10.D. Method of preparation
10.E. Physical properties
10.F. Chemical reactions
10.G. Mechanism of SN1 and SN2 reaction
10.H. Grignard Reagent
10.I. Optical activity and chirality
10.J. Reaction of haloarenes
10.K. Electrophilic substitution reactions and reaction with metals
10.L. Freons, DDT, trichloromethane
10.M. tetrachloromethane
10.N. iodoform
11.A. Classification
11.B. Nomenclature of alcohols
11.C. Structures of functional group
11.D. Methods of preparation
11.E. physical and chemical properties( of primary alcohols only)
11.F. identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
11.G. mechanism of dehydration
11.H. uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol
11.I. Phenols: Nomenclature
11.J. methods of preparation
11.K. physical and chemical properties
11.L. acidic nature of phenol
11.M. electrophilic substitution reactions
11.N. uses of phenols
11.O. Ethers: Nomenclature
11.P. methods of preparation
11.Q. Physical and chemical properties
12.A. Nomenclature and structure of carbonyl compounds
12.B. methods of preparation of aldehydes
12.C. methods of preparation of ketones
12.D. physical and chemical properties
12.E. nucleophilic addition reactions
12.F. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes
12.G. uses of aldehydes and ketones
12.H. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature
12.I. acidic nature
12.J. methods of preparation
12.K. physical properties and acidity
12.L. Chemical properties
12.M. uses
13.A. Structure and classification
13.B. Amines: Nomenclature
13.C. methods of preparation
13.D. physical properties of amines
13.E. Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines
13.F. Electrophilic substitution of amines
13.G. chemical properties (basicity and acylation)
13.H. Diazonium salts: methods of preparation
13.I. Chemical reaction of diazonium salts I
13.J. Chemical reaction of diazonium salts II
13.K. Importance of diazonium salts
14.A. Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses)
14.B. monosaccharides (glucose)
14.C. monosaccharides (Fructose)
14.D. Disaccharides ( sucrose,lactose,maltose)
14.E. polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance
14.F. Proteins – Elementary idea of α – amino acids and classification
14.G. structure of proteins, fibrous and globular proteins
14.H. denaturation of proteins
14.I. enzymes
14.J. Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure
14.K. Vitamins – Classification and functions
14.L. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
14.M. Biological function of nucleic acid
15.A. Classification of polymers
15.B. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation)
15.C. Preparation of important addition polymers
15.D. Preparation of important condensation polymers: polyamides, polyesters
15.E. Bakelite, melamine-formaldehyde polymers
15.F. copolymerization
15.G. Molecular mass of polymer and biodegradable polymers
15.H. rubber
15.I. Polymers of commercial importance
16.A. Drugs and their classification
16.B. Drug-target interaction
16.C. Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs: antacids
16.D. Antihistamines
16.E. Neurologically active drug: Tranquilizers antiseptics
16.F. Chemicals in medicines – analgesics
16.G. Antimicrobials: antibiotics
16.H. Antiseptic and disinfectants
16.I. Antifertility drugs
16.J. Antioxidants
16.K. Chemicals in food – preservations
16.L. Artificial sweetening agents
16.M. Cleansing agents: soap and detergents
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CBSE- Grade 12 Physics Syllabus

CBSE is known to be among the most reputed boards that provides education by imparting comprehensive syllabus in appropriate manner.Class 12 Physics can be helpful in providing adequate knowledge on the concerned topics and the units mentioned in the syllabus. The class 12 syllabus is accessible online and can be downloaded in any format easily.


  1. Electric Charges and Fields
  2. Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  3. Current Electricity
  4. Moving Charges and Magnetism
  5. Magnetism and Matter
  6. Electromagnetic Induction
  7. Alternating Current
  8. Electromagnetic Waves
  9. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  10. Wave Optics
  11. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  12. Atoms
  13. Nuclei
  14. Semiconductor Electronics: Material Devices and Simple
  15. Communication System

1.A. Electric charge: conservation
1.B. Conductors and insulators
1.C. Charging by induction
1.D. Basic principle of electric charge
1.E. Coulomb’s law
1.F. Forces between multiple charges
1.G. Electric field
1.H. Electric field lines
1.I. Electric flux
1.J. Electric dipole
1.K. Dipole in a uniform external field
1.L. Continuous charge distribution
1.M. Gauss’s law
1.N. Application of Gauss’s law

2.A. Electrostatic potential
2.B. Potential due to a point charge
2.C. Potential due to an electric diple
2.D. Potential due to a system of charges
2.E. Equipotential surfaces
2.F. Potential energy of system of charges
2.G. Potential energy in an external field
2.H. Electrostatics of conductor
2.I. Dielectrics and polarisation
2.J. Capacitors and capacitance
2.H. The parallel plate capacitor
2.I. Effect of dielectric on capacitance
2.J. Combinaion of capacitors
2.K. Energy stored in a capacitor
2.L. Van De Graff’s generator
3.A. Electric current
3.C. Ohm’s law and its limitations
3.D. Drift of electrons and origin of resistivity
3.E. Resisitivity of various materials
3.F. Temperature dependence of resistivity
3.G. Electric energy, power
3.H. Combination of resistors
3.I. Cells, EMF, internal resistance
3.J. Cells in series and parallel
3.K. Kirchoff’s rule
3.L. Wheatstone bridge, Meter bridge
3.M. Potentiometer

4.A. Magnetic force
4.B. Motion in a magnetic field
4.C. Motion in combined magnetic and electric field
4.D. Measurement of time Biot Savart’s law, Magnetic field on the axis of circular current loop
4.E. Ampere’s circuital law
4.F. The solenoid and toroid
4.G. Force between two parallel current, the ampere
4.H. “Toreque on current loop, magnetic dipole : Torque on a rectangular current loop in a magnetic field”
4.I. Circular current loop as magnetic dipole
4.J. The magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron
4.K. The moving coil galvanometer
5.A. The bar magnet: magnetic field line, bar magnet as solenoid
5.B. The dipole in a uniform magnetic field and the electrostatic analog
5.C. Magnetism and Gauss’s law
5.D. The earth’s magnetism
5.E. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity
5.F. Magnetic properties of material- Paramagnetism
5.G. dia- and ferro – magnetic substances
5.H. Permanent magnets and electromagnets
6.A. The experiments of faraday and henry
6.B. Magnetic flux
6.C. Faraday’s law of induction
6.D. Lenz’s law and conservation of energy
6.E. Motional electromotive force
6.F. Energy consideration : A quantative study
6.G. Eddy current
6.H. Inductance: self and mutual inductance
6.I. AC generator
7.A. Peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage
7.B. AC voltage applied to a resistor
7.C. Representation of AC current and voltage by rotating vectors- phasors
7.D. AC voltage applied to an inductor
7.E. AC voltage applied to a conductor
7.F. AC voltage applied to a series LCR circuit: phasor diagram solution
7.G. AC voltage applied to a series LCR circuit: analytical solution
7.H. Resonance
7.I. Power of AC circuit: power factor
7.J. LC oscillation
7.K. Transformers
8.A. Displacement current
8.B. Electromagnetic waves: source
8.C. Nature of electromagnetic waves
8.D. electromagnetic spectrum
8.E. Radio waves
8.F. microwaves
8.G. infrared
8.H. visible
8.I. ultraviolet
8.J. X-rays
8.K. gamma rays
9.A. Reflection of light by spherical mirrors
9.B. Mirror formula
9.C. Refraction of light
9.D. Total internal reflection and its applications
9.E. Optical fibres
9.F. Refraction at spherical surfaces
9.G. Lenses
9.H. Thin lens formula and magnification
9.I. Lensmakers formula
9.J. Power of a lens
9.K. Combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror
9.L. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism
9.M. Blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
9.N. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers
10.A. Huygens principle
10.B. Reflection and refraction of a plane wave
10.C. Doppler effect
10.D. Coherrent and incoherrent addition of waves
10.E. Interference of light waves and young’s experiment
10.F. Diffraction
10.G. Resolving power of optical instrument and validity of ray optics
10.H. Polarisation
10.I. Polarization by scattering
10.J. Polarization by reflection
11.A. Electron emission
11.B. Photoelectric effect: Hertz and Lenard’s observation
11.C. Experimental study of photoelectric effect
11.D. Einstein’s photoelectric effect: energy quantum of radiation
11.E. Particle nature of light: photon
11.F. Wave nature of matter
11.G. Davisson and Germer experiment
12.A. Alpha- particle scattering and Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom
12.B. Atomic spectra
12.C. Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom
12.D. Energy levels
12.E. Line spectra and the hydrogen atom
12.F. De Brogli’s explanation of Bohr’s second postulate of quantisation
13.A. Atomic masses and composition of nucleus
13.B. Size of nucleus
13.C. Mass-energy and nuclear binding energy
13.D. Nuclear force
13.E. Radioactivity- law of radioactive decay
13.F. Alpha decay
13.G. Beta decay
13.H. Gamma decay
13.I. Nuclear energy: fission
13.J. Nuclear reactor
13.K. Nuclear fusion: energy generation in stars
13.L. Controlled thermonuclear fusion
14.A. Classification of metal, conductors and semiconductors, insulators
14.B. Intrinsic semiconductors
14.C. Extrinsic semiconductors
14.D. P-n junction
14.E. Semiconductor diodes
14.F. Application of junction diode as rectifier
14.G. Special purpose p-n junction diode: Zenner diode
14.H. Optoelectronic jnction devices: photodiode
14.I. Light emitting diode
14.J. Solar cell
14.K. Junction transistor: structure and action
14.L. Basic transistor circuit configuration and transistor characteristics
14.M. Transistor as a device (amplifier)
14.N. Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator
14.O. Digital electronics and logic gates
14.P. Integrated circuits
15.A. Element of a communication system
15.B. Basic terminology used in electronic communication system
15.C. Bandwidth of signals
15.D. Bandwidth of transmission medium
15.E. Propagation of electromagnetic waves:ground wave
15.F. Propagation of electromagnetic waves:sky wave
15.G. Propagation of electromagnetic waves:space wave
15.H. Modulation and its necessity
15.I.  Amplitude modulation
15.J. Detection of amplitude modulated wave